Applied & Integrated Manufacturing Inc.

Spot Navigation


  • Magnets or transponders are embedded in the floor and used by the AGV as reference spots
  • The distance between the reference points is fixed and known to the AGV
  • The AGV is continuously updating its position using Dead-Reckoning technique that depends on measuring wheels rotation and steering angles
  • Every time the AGV crosses a reference spot, it compares the measured distance since the last reference spot with the known distance between two spots
  • The difference between the two distances is used to correct the AGV position


  • Safety scanners used for obstacle detection and for positioning accuracy
  • Magnetic reader or RFID receiver
  • Wheel encoders to measure travel
  • Steering encoders to measure steering angles
  • On-board computer to control the AGV and interface with supervisory system and/or PLC system


  • +/- 1.3 cm (+/- 0.5 inches)
  • +/- 1.2 centigrade


  • Passive, maintenance-free infrastructure
  • Flexible for layout changes and expansion
  • High accuracy
  • Suitable for outdoor applications
  • Compatible with Semi-automatic tasks